数据库之基础知识

<!--[if !supportLists]-->一、 <!--[endif]-->mysql入门语句

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->连接数据库:mysql -h localhost -u root –p

-h 如果不写host,默认连接localhost

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]--> 查看数据库:show databases;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]--> 创建数据库:create database php;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]--> 进入数据库:use php

<!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[endif]--> 查看表:show tables;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->6. <!--[endif]--> 删除数据库:drop database php;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->7. <!--[endif]--> 创建表:create table class (sid int,sname varchar(20));

<!--[if !supportLists]-->8. <!--[endif]--> 重命名表:rename table class to newclass;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->9. <!--[endif]--> 删除表:drop table s;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->10. <!--[endif]--> 查看表结构:desc newclass;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->11. <!--[endif]--> 优雅退出:\c

<!--[if !supportLists]-->12. <!--[endif]--> 解决字符集问题:默认window下是GBK,系统表是UTF-8set names gbk;

、增删改查语句

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]-->插入语句:insert into class values(1005,'王五'),(1006,'王六'); 同时插入多行

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]-->更新语句:update classs set name=’李四’ where id=1001;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]-->删除语句:delete from class where id=’’;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]-->查询语句:select * from class;

、整型列的字节与存储范围

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<!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]--> tinyint(M) unsigned zerofill

M: 宽度(0填充的时候才有意义)

unsigned: 无符号类型(非负)

zerofill: 0填充,(默认无符号)

四、浮点列

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]--> Float(M,D) float(6,2) à -9999.99 --+9999.99

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]--> Decimal(M,D) decimal(6,2) à同上

M 总位数,D小数位

五、字符型列

Char 定长 char(M) ,M代表宽度,即可容纳的字符数。char(5)

Varchar :变长 varchar(M)M代表宽度,即可容纳的字符数。varchar(250)

区别:

<!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->char定长:M个字符,若存的小于M个字符,实占M个字符。

Varchar变长:M个字符,若存的小于M个字符,设为NN<=M,实占N个字符。实占空间:N个字符+1--2)字节。这里(1--2)字节用于记录varchar长度。

char:存入时,剩余空间,用空格在尾部补齐。读取时,去掉尾部空格。(可能导致尾部空格丢失)

Varchar: (不会导致尾部空格丢失)

速度上:char 快些。

空间利用率:四字成语表 char(4) ;

微博 140 varchar(140);

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六、日期时间类型

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]--> 日期:date 典型1900-11-23 支持的范围是'1000-01-01' '9999-12-31'

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]--> 时间:time TIME值的范围可以从'-838:59:59''838:59:59'

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]--> 日期时间:datetime 支持的范围为'1000-01-01 00:00:00''9999-12-31 23:59:59'

<!--[if !supportLists]-->4. <!--[endif]--> Year类型:一个字节,表示1901-2155[0000表示错误时选择]

可以指定各种格式的YEAR值:

· 四位字符串,范围为'1901''2155'

· 四位数字,范围为19012155

· 两位字符串,范围为'00''99''00''69''70''99'范围的值被转换为2000206919701999范围的YEAR值。

Note:

在开发中,很少用日期时间类型表示一个需要精确到秒的列。使用时间戳。

<!--[if !supportLists]-->5. <!--[endif]--> 时间戳:TIMESTAMP

七、建表语句:

create table 表名 (

1 [列属性 默认值],

2 [列属性 默认值],

.....

n [列属性 默认值]

)

engine = 存储引擎

charset = 字符集

八、Where 详解

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<!--[if !supportLists]-->1. <!--[endif]--> inin(1, 2,…, n) 表示在值1到值n中的任意一个值。Not in(…)

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2. <!--[endif]--> between 1 and2:表示在值1和值2之间

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3. <!--[endif]--> Like + 通配符

九、 Group by 子句

分组函数,group 函数会忽略 NULL 值。

与聚合函数配合使用:

<!--[if !supportLists]-->ü <!--[endif]-->max : 求最大

<!--[if !supportLists]-->ü <!--[endif]-->min : 求最小

<!--[if !supportLists]-->ü <!--[endif]-->sum : 求总和

<!--[if !supportLists]-->ü <!--[endif]-->avg : 求平均

<!--[if !supportLists]-->ü <!--[endif]-->count:求总行数

avg(expr):若找不到匹配的行,则AVG()返回 NULL

count(expr): 返回SELECT语句检索到的行中非NULL值的数目。

若找不到匹配的行,则COUNT() 返回 0

COUNT(*) 的稍微不同之处在于,它返回检索行的数目, 不论其是否包含 NULL值。

SELECT 从一个表中检索,而不检索其它的列,并且没有 WHERE子句时, COUNT(*)被优化到最快的返回速度

MIN(expr)MAX(expr):若找不到匹配的行,MIN()MAX()返回 NULL

SUM(expr):若返回集合中无任何行,则 SUM() 返回NULL

十、Having 子句

havingwhere异同点:

1havingwhere类似,可筛选数据

where后的表达式怎么写,having就怎么写

2where针对表中的列发挥作用,查询数据

having针对查询结果中的列发挥作用,筛选数据

十一、Order by limit 子句

Order by 可以多字段排序 默认升序(asc),降序(desc

Limit [offset],[N]offset 偏移量,N 所取数据条数

第一个自变量指定返回的第一行的偏移量,第二个自变量指定返回的行数的最大值。初始行的偏移量为0(不是1):

LIMIT nLIMIT 0,n等价

十二、子查询

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1、 <!--[endif]-->Where子查询

把内层查询结果作为外层的where比较条件。

内层查询有多个结果时,使用in not in

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2、 <!--[endif]--> From 子查询

把内层查询结果作为临时表,再在外层进行一次查询 需要加 as temp_table

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3、 <!--[endif]-->Exists 子查询

把外层查询结果拿到内层,看内层的查询是否成立

Select c_id, c_name from t1 where exists(select g_id,cate_id from goods where cate_id=c_id)

十三、Union

作用:把2次或多次查询结果合并起来

要求:两次查询的列数一致

推荐:查询的每一列的列类型也一样

可以来自多张表

多次sql语句取出来的列名可以不一致,此时,以第一张表的sql列名为准。

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1、 <!--[endif]-->若合并的各表无论有无主键,皆全部合并(应该union出来的是临时表,不会有主键问题),各自表的内容不做任何处理。但是,若不同的语句取出的行,有完全相同(每个列的值相同),则只能显示一条数据,忽略其他相同行。如果不去重复,应该使用 union all

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2、 <!--[endif]-->如果子句中有order by limit 等子句,需要把前面的子句使用括号包起来。若把order bylimit等子句放到最外面,则表明对最终合并后结果进行排序处理。

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3、 <!--[endif]-->在子句中,order by 配合limit 使用才有意义。若order by 不配合limit使用,会被语法分析器优化分析时,去除。

总结:

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十四、 连接概念与左连接语法

基本概念:笛卡尔乘积

左连接:select 1 2 …

From tableA left join tableB

On tableA .=tableB. [此处表连接成一张大表,完全当成普通表看]

Where group by having … 照常使用。

右连接:select 1 2 …

From tableA right join tableB

On tableA .=tableB. 其他类似左连接

内连接:select 1 2 …

From tableA inner join tableB

On tableA .=tableB. 其他类似左连接

内连接:查询左右表都有的数据,即:不要左右连接中null的那部分

内连接是左右连接的交集。

区别:

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1、 <!--[endif]-->左连接: 左表为准,去右表找匹配数据,若右表没有匹配数据,则以null补齐;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2、 <!--[endif]-->右连接:以右表为准,去左表找匹配数据,若左表没有匹配数据,则以null补齐;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3、 <!--[endif]--> A left join B ===B right join A

推荐:把右连接转换成做连接使用(推荐使用左连接,兼容性更好一些)

总结:

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十五、 表管理之列增删改

列声明:列名 列类型 [列属性][默认值]

1、增加列:

Alter table XXXtable add 列声明

增加的列默认在表的最后一列。

可以使用after来声明新增的列的:alter table A add id int primary key after colum_2;

新增列放在最前面: alter table 表名 add 列声明 first

2、修改列:

Alter table 表名 change 被改变的列名 列声明;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->4、 <!--[endif]-->删除列:

Alter table 表名 drop 列名;

总结:

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十六、视图

背景:某个查询结果被频繁使用,即需要拿这个结果作为子查询出现。

定义:视图是由查询结果形成的一张虚拟表。

创建视图:

Creat view 视图名 as select 语句;

CREATE [OR REPLACE] [ALGORITHM = {UNDEFINED | MERGE | TEMPTABLE}]

VIEW view_name [(column_list)]

AS select_statement

[WITH [CASCADED | LOCAL] CHECK OPTION]

视图好处:

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1、 <!--[endif]-->可以简化查询;

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2、 <!--[endif]-->可以进行权限控制。即表的某些列不希望被外部发现,需要建一个view 进行过滤。通过把表的权限封锁,而开发相应的视图权限。

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3、 <!--[endif]-->大数据分表时可以用到

比如,表的行数超过200W行时,就会变慢。

可以把一张表的数据拆成4张表存放。

分散的方法:最常用可以使用id取模来计算。

还可以用视图,把4张表形成一张视图:

Creat view 表名 as select tableA union select tableB union ….

修改视图:

Alter view 视图名 as select XXXX

删除视图:

Drop view 视图名;

视图与表的关系:

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1、 <!--[endif]-->视图是表的查询结果,自然表的数据改变了,影响视图的结果。

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2、 <!--[endif]-->视图增删改也会影响表。但是,视图并不是总能增删改的。只有视图和表的数据能一一对应时,可以修改(即视图列与表相同)。

对于视图insert 还应注意:

视图必须包含表中没有默认值的列(即,视图需要明确指明插入列的数据)。

ALGORITHM子句

是对标准SQLMySQL扩展。ALGORITHM可取三个值:MERGETEMPTABLEUNDEFINED。如果没有ALGORITHM子句,默认算法是UNDEFINED(未定义的)。算法会影响MySQL处理视图的方式。

<!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->对于MERGE,会将引用视图的语句(如查询语句where语句)的文本与视图定义(中的where 语句)合并起来,使得视图定义的某一部分取代语句的对应部分。分析出最终语句后还是去查原表。(详细请参看《Mysql 5.1参看手册》)

会出现的问题:在view 层有函数集、group by 等时,会先合并到 视图定义语句中,最终,使用合并好的语句对基表进行查询。此时,合并好的语句中的某些子语句可能不生效。必须group by order by 共存 等等情况。

<!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->对于TEMPTABLE,视图的结果将被置于临时表中,然后使用它执行语句。

View 层语句将对[临时表 sql_1]进行查询。而[临时表 sql_1]对基表进行查询。

对于UNDEFINEDMySQL将选择所要使用的算法。如果可能,它倾向于MERGE而不是TEMPTABLE,这是因为MERGE通常更有效,而且如果使用了临时表,视图是不可更新的。

Tips: show creat view 可以查看“创建view ”的原sql语句;

总结:

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十七、 字符集与校对集

1、字符集:

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SET NAMES 'x'语句与这三个语句等价:

               mysql> SET character_set_client = x;
               mysql> SET character_set_results = x;
               mysql> SET character_set_connection = x;

什么时间将会丢失数据?

Connection 和服务器的字符集比client小时。详情请查看《mysql 5.1参看手册》 “10.3.6. 连接字符集和校对”章节。

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<!--[if !supportLists]-->2、<!--[endif]-->校对集

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总结:

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十八、触发器

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1、 <!--[endif]-->基本概念:

解决的问题:可以监视某表的变化,当发生变化时,触发某个操作。

能监视:增、删、改操作;

能操作:增、删、改操作。

语法:

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2、 <!--[endif]-->语法

四要素:

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创建触发器sql

Creat trigger 触发器名

After/before insert/update/delete on 表名

FOR EACH ROW (这个语句是mysql特定的)

Begin

Sql语句(对表增删改操作,一句或多句)

End

写触发器之前,需要修改结束符号,即把默认的“;”改成类似“$”或其他的符号。

例子:

               DELIMITER $(修改结束符)

               CREATE TRIGGER testref BEFORE INSERT ON test1
                FOR EACH ROW 
               BEGIN
                       INSERT INTO test2 SET a2 = NEW.a1;
                       DELETE FROM test3 WHERE a3 = NEW.a1;  
                       UPDATE test4 SET b4 = b4 + 1 WHERE a4 = NEW.a1;
                END
               $(结束符)

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3、 <!--[endif]--> 如何在触发器引用行的值

<!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->对于insert而言,使用 NEW来表示新增行

行中的每一列的值,用NEW.列名 来表示;

例子如上面所示。

<!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->对于delete而言,使用 OLD来表示删除行

行中的每一列的值,使用 OLD.列名 来表示;

如删除订单物品:

Creat trigger trigger_1

After delete on table_1

Begin

Updata table_2 set num = num – OLD.num where id = OLD.id

End

<!--[if !supportLists]--> <!--[endif]-->对于update 而言,被修改的行:

修改前的值:使用OLD 来表示, OLD.列名 表示列值;

修改后的值:使用 NEW 来表示, NEW.列名 表示列值。

如修改订单物品数量:

Create trigger trigger_2

After update on table_2

For each row

Begin

Update table_3 set num = num + OLD.num – NEW.num where id = OLD.id

End

<!--[if !supportLists]-->4、 <!--[endif]--> After before 的区别

After 是先完成数据的增删改,后,再触发,触发中的语句晚于增删改,无法影响前面的增删改操作;

Before 是先完成触发,再增删改,触发的语句先于监视的增删改,我们有机会判断,修改即将发生的操作。

典型案例:

对于所下订单进行判断,若订单数据>5,就认为是恶意订单,强制把所订的商品数据改成5

Create trigger trigger_3

Before insert on table_5

For each row

Begin

If new.num > 5 

  New.num = 5;

End if

Update table_6 set num = num – new.num where id = new.id

End

十九、 存储引擎与事务

常用的表引擎:

Myisam:批量插入速度快,不支持事务,锁表

InnoDB:批量插入相对较慢,支持事务,锁行

事务:

选择引擎:InnoDB

<!--[if !supportLists]-->1、 <!--[endif]-->基本概念:

通俗的讲事务:

指一组操作,要么都执行成功,要么都不执行——>原子性;

在所有的操作没有执行完毕之前,其他会话不能够看到中间改变的过程——>隔离性;

事务发生前和发生后,数据的总额依然匹配——>一致性;

事务产生的影响不能够撤销——>持久性;

如果出了错误,事务也不允许撤销,只能做“补偿性事务”

<!--[if !supportLists]-->2、 <!--[endif]-->语法:

启动事务:start transaction

Sql……

Sql……

提交事务:commit transaction

回滚事务:rollback transaction

当一个事务 commit rollback 之后,此事务已结束。

<!--[if !supportLists]-->3、 <!--[endif]--> 事务的基本原理

二十、数据库备份与恢复

备份:

增量备份、整体备份

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二十一、索引

注意:可以先去掉索引,再导入数据,最后统一加索引;

1、概念:

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分析:

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结论:

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索引介绍:

<!--[if !supportLists]-->(1) <!--[endif]-->普通索引 index

仅仅是加快查询速度

<!--[if !supportLists]-->(2) <!--[endif]-->主键索引 primary key index

主键比唯一,但是唯一索引不一定是主键

一张表上,只能有一个主键,但是额可以用一个或多个唯一索引

<!--[if !supportLists]-->(3) <!--[endif]-->唯一索引 unique index

行上的值不能重复

<!--[if !supportLists]-->(4) <!--[endif]-->全文索引 fulltext index

查看索引:show index from 表名;

添加索引:

Alter table 表名 add index/unique/fulltext [索引名](列名)

Alter table 表名 add add primary key (列名)

删除索引:

Alter table 表名 drop index 索引名;

特别地,删除主键索引:alter table 表名 drop primary key;

二十二、存储过程

类似于函数,就是把一段代码封装起来。

当要执行这一段代码的时候,可以通过调用该存储过程来实现。

在语句体里面,可以有 if/else while语句。

查看现有的存储过程:

Show procedure status

删除存储过程:

Drop procedure 存储过程的名字;

创建存储过程:

Delimit $

Create procedure p1()

Begin

Select * from g;

End$

调用存储过程:

Call 存储过程名;

传参:

Create procedure p2(n int)

Begin

Select * from g

Where num > n;

End$

使用if/else

Create procedure p2(n int,j char(1))

Begin

If(j=’a’) then

Select * from g where num > n;

Else

Select * from g where num < n;

End if;

End$

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